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Size: 2.5 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 Av37 of the Rockefeller University Archives) consists of articles about Avery, awards, clippings, correspondence, memorabilia, obituaries, photographs, reports, reprints, and an inventory of the Avery papers at the Tennessee State Library and Archives.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Oswald Theodore Avery (1877-1955), a research physician and bacteriologist, joined the Rockefeller Institute for medical Research as an Assistant in 1913 and rose to the position of Member in 1923. A ranking researcher on pneumonia, Avery was one of the founders of the science of immunochemistry and discoverer of the transforming nature of DNA. He retired to Nashville, Tennessee in 1949.

MAX BERGMANN PAPERS, 1881-(1941-1945)-1961

Size:5.8 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 B454 of the Rockefeller University Archives) primarily documents the laboratory research and administration of biochemist Dr. Max Bergmann during his tenure at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, now the Rockefeller University, from 1934 until his death in 1944. The records are particularly focused on the research he conducted in the 1940's on problems of interest to the U.S. Armed Forces, namely the synthetic, analytical, and inorganic problems in chemical warfare and B–4 toxicity, especially mustard gases. Records consist mostly of laboratory research notes, notes on related scientific literature, research progress reports, correspondence with colleagues and administrative officials, administrative circulars and memoranda, reprints of Bergmann publications, and receipts of classified reports and scientific samples. Research topics of interest include World War II chemical warfare research, Selective Service deferments for scientists, policies and procedures of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and the National Defense Research Committee, and the "brain drain" or significant emigration of scientists and technologists to the United States from Europe as a result of hostile conditions prior to World War II. The collection also contains a minimal amount of biographical material, including Bergmann's personal correspondence, documents relating to Bergmann's funeral, and photographs.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Max Bergmann was a German biochemist. He was born in Furth, Bavaria on February 12, 1886. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Berlin in 1911, he worked closely as an assistant to Hermann Emil Fischer from 1911 to 1919. Together, they laid the foundation for scientific knowledge of proteins, carbohydrates, and tannins. Following the suicide of Fischer, Bergmann accepted a position as Vice–Director and Head of the Department of Organic Chemistry at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fiber Chemistry in Berlin. In 1921, he moved on to serve as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Leather Research until 1933. When the conditions in Germany grew too hostile, he immigrated to the United States and became an Associate Member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research where he continued as a pioneer of applied sciences focused on proteins and protein-splitting enzymes, as well as the chemistry of carbohydrates and fats. In 1937, he became a full member of the Institute. He died at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York on November 7, 1944. At the time of his death, he was working under contract with the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development to benefit the national defense during World War II. This research focused on the synthetic, analytical, and inorganic problems in chemical warfare and B-4 toxicity, especially mustard gases.


Size: 2 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 C232 of the Rockefeller University Archives) consists of biographical articles, clippings, correspondence (1906-1944), experimental notes (1909), inquiries about Carrel (1936-1970), photographs, and reprints.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), born and educated in Lyon France, was a physician who worked in experimental surgery at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research from 1906 until his retirement in 1939. He perfected the technique of vascular surgery and was awarded the Nobel prize in medicine in 1912 for his work on the suture of blood vessels and organ transplants. Carrel headed the Rockefeller Foundation-sponsored War Demonstration Hospital on the Institute's grounds during World War I.

ALFRED E. COHN PAPERS, 1900-(1920-1954)-1980

Size: 16 cu. ft. of material are open; 44 cu. ft. of material are unprocessed and restricted.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 C661 of the Rockefeller University Archives) contains administrative records, clippings, correspondence (both personal and professional), manuscripts of Minerva's Progress (1946) and Burden of Disease (1950), notes, photographs, and reprints.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Alfred Einstein Cohn (1879-1957), one of the first cardiologists in the U.S., became an associate and assistant physician at the hospital of The Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research in 1911. Within a few years he became the leader of the laboratory and clinical service devoted to the study of heart disease, a position he held until his retirement in 1944. His laboratory made contributions to knowledge in anatomy, embryology, physiology and biochemistry, as well as pathology and pharmacology. Cohn took a leading role in the activities of various organizations, and this collection documents his activities in the New York Heart Association, New York Academy of Medicine, Veterans Administration, China Medical Board, Asia Institute, Sydenham Hospital, and the Committee for Displaced Foreign Scholars and Displaced Foreign Physicians.

RENE DUBOS PAPERS, 1900-( 1927-1982)-1988

Size: 44.4 cu. ft.

Collection: The collection (Record Group 450 D851 of the Rockefeller University Archives) consists of biographical material; correspondence; drafts of lectures, articles, and books; laboratory notebooks; memorabilia; reprints; photographs and slides; audio and video cassettes; and films.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Rene Jules Dubos (1901-1982), a microbiologist and experimental pathologist, joined The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research as a fellow after receiving his Ph.D. from Rutgers in 1927. His association with the Institute and later Rockefeller University continued until his death, interrupted only by two years at Harvard (1942-1944). He conducted research into pneumonia, tuberculosis, and enzymes, and was instrumental in the development of gramicidin. Dubos's interests extended to include psychology, genetics, and the environment. He was the author of numerous articles and more than twenty books.

PAUL EHRLICH PAPERS, 1863-(1898-1915)-1996

Size: 71.0 cu. ft.

Contents: This collection, Record Group 650 Eh89 in the Rockefeller University Archives, consists of copy books and their typescripts, laboratory notebooks, correspondence, photographs, books, diplomas, obituary material and memorabilia that document much of the personal life and scientific activities of Paul Ehrlich.

The University archives also include two additional Ehrlich-related collections: Record Group 650.2 Eh89, the Pinkus Family Collection and Record Group 650.3 Eh89, the Ehrlich-Marquardt Collection. The Pinkus Family Collection includes biographical material on Ehrlich, some original Ehrlich letters, articles, clippings, and correspondence. The Ehrlich-Marquardt Collection includes incoming correspondence to Ehrlich, notes, manuscripts by Ehrlich, and photographs, as well as the papers of Martha Marquardt, Ehrlich's secretary for fourteen years.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) was one of the most important biomedical researchers of his generation. His pioneering work in hematology established methods of detecting and differentiating various blood disorders. By exposing laboratory subjects to diphtheria and other pathogens, he studied the process by which active and passive immunity is acquired. Recognition of Ehrlich's work in immunology, in which he studied toxins and anti-toxins, led to the establishment in 1899 of the Royal Prussian Institute for Experimental Therapy in Frankfurt am Main, which he directed until his death in 1915. One of Ehrlich's research thrusts at the Institute was to find synthetic chemicals that could be used to fight specific pathogens. For his efforts, Ehrlich received the Nobel Prize in 1908. In 1910, he developed the drug Salvarsan for the treatment of syphilis.

View the online exhibit, The Scientific Career of Paul Ehrlich (1864-1915): Selections from the Paul Ehrlich Collection


Size: 128 reels of microfilm from the Papers of Simon Flexner at the American Philosophical Society

Contents: The papers reflect almost every movement in the organization of medical science in the first half of the 20th century and are rich in social, cultural, and educational history. The collection includes correspondence, diaries, drafts of articles, and speeches. Subjects covered include epidemics in the U.S., immunology, medical sciences, and poliomyelitis. See the Guide to Selected Files of the Professional Papers of Simon Flexner at the American Philosophical Society by Margaret Miller

Photograph Collection: No

Biography: Simon Flexner (1863-1946) was a physician, administrator, professor of pathology at the University of Pennsylvania, first director of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1901-1935), a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, and a friend and advisor to John D. Rockefeller, Jr..


Size: 8.4 cu. ft.

Contents: This collection (Record Group 450 H735 of the Rockefeller University Archives) consists primarily of correspondence; also includes some memoranda, reports and reprints.

Photograph Collection: No

Arrangement: Alphabetical

Biography: Francis Oliver Holmes (1899-1990), was a phytopathologist at the Rockefeller Institute who conducted research in the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Indian subcontinent. He completed his graduate degree in 1925 at The Johns Hopkins University with a thesis on "Herpetomonas Flagellates in Milkweed in the United States," which was based on research on protozoan infection. From 1923 until 1932, Holmes worked as a protozoologist at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research in Yonkers, New York. In 1932, following Dr. Louis O. Kunkel's move, Holmes joined the faculty of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in the Department of Plant Pathology at its Princeton site in Hillsboro, New Jersey. In Kunkel's laboratory, Holmes changed his research concentration from plant protozoa to plant viruses.

Holmes' area of expertise centered on mosaic virus diseases in various commercial crops. He investigated the genetic factors that created susceptibility to mosaic virus infection. His work contributed to efforts to develop virus resistant varieties of tomatoes, tobacco, and sweet peppers. Corresponding regularly with plant virologists at various agricultural stations and laboratories around the world, he participated in seed and plant exchanges with other scientists. Some of his research focused on virus transmittance through insect vectors that spread viruses from plant to plant. Holmes' approach to plant pathology recognized the significance of the link between environmental factors and virological studies. He also studied the phenomenon of attenuated and masked virus strains that did not outwardly harm infected plants.

Starting in 1944, and, over a period of almost two decades, Holmes spent varying lengths of time each year as a guest researcher at the Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station in Rio Pedras, where he studied the causes of the spread of "bunchy-top" disease in the papaya plantations. The United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) called upon Holmes to be its virology consultant and in 1961 sent him to the Guinobatan Agricultural Experiment Station in the Philippines to investigate the causes of the widespread devastation of cadang disease in the coconut crop. Holmes discovered that this viral disease was being spread by an insect vector that transferred it from certain susceptible weeds that served as reservoirs of the virus. He concluded that a change of farming practice by eradicating this weed would slow the spread of the disease. In 1964, the FAO called on Holmes to consult on similar problems in Kerala Province, India.

When the Rockefeller Institute closed its Princeton site in 1950, Holmes moved his research to the Institute's New York City locale. After retiring in 1965, Holmes spent more time with his personal scientific interest in apiculture. He published numerous papers on the relation between Salix trees, pollen production, and bees. Holmes died in 1990, a pedestrian victim of a car accident.


Size: 12.2 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 L221 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes biographical material, correspondence (both personal and professional), laboratory notebooks, memorabilia, photographs, and reprints.

Arrangement: Alphabetical

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Rebecca Craighill Lancefield (1895-1981), a microbiologist, was first associated with The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1919 as a technical assistant. After receiving her Ph.D. at Columbia University, she returned to the Institute as an assistant and by 1958 had advanced to the status of full member and professor of microbiology. Lancefield's research centered on immunochemical studies of streptococcal bacteria. She developed a classification system for hemolytic streptococci, known universally as the Lancefield Grouping. Her classification work helped provide the foundation for epidemiological investigations for streptococcal disease worldwide. During World War II, Lancefield's laboratory supplied vast quantities of Group A streptococcal sera to the U.S. Armed Forces.

KARL LANDSTEINER PAPERS, 1892-(1925-1943)-1984

Size: 16.6 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, subject files and laboratory notes, manuscripts, reprints, and lantern slides.

Arrangement: Chronological and Alphabetical

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) was born in Vienna, Austria, where he began his medical career in 1891 after earning an M.D. from the University of Vienna. A physician and researcher in physiology, he demonstrated the dependence of immunological phenomena on chemical structure. In 1900 his studies on blood resulted in the identification and classification of the human blood groups A, B, AB, and O, and for this work he received the Nobel Prize in 1930. Landsteiner was affiliated with the RIMR from 1922 until his death.


Size: 7.2 cu. ft.

Collection: The collection (Record Group 450 L657 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes biographical material, a bibliography, administrative correspondence, personal and scientific correspondence, citations and awards, notes and drafts for lectures and publications, notebooks, and thirteen volumes of reprints.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene (1869-1940), born and educated in Russia, was a biochemist noted for his extensive research on the chemistry of nucleic acids, proteins, and amino acids. Following graduation from a medical academy in 1892, Levene joined his family in the U.S. and practiced medicine on New York's Lower East Side until 1896, when he contracted tuberculosis and decided upon a career in biochemical research. He served as a member of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research from 1905 until his retirement in 1939.

FRITZ LIPMANN Papers, 1924-1986

Size: 56.3 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection includes personal piles, correspondence, lecture files, manuscripts and notes, laboratory files, professional societies, Nobel Prize files, photographs, rolodex files, slides, negatives, Lipmann reprints, and audio-visual material.

Arrangement: Chronological and alphabetical.

Online Finding Aid

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Fritz Albert Lipmann, whose work gave scientists the basis for understanding how cells convert food into energy, was born in Koenigsberg, Germany on June 12, 1899. He earned an M.D. in 1924 and a Ph.D. in chemistry in 1927 at the University of Berlin. He joined Otto Meyerhof's group at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, first in Dahlem, then in Heidelberg and in 1930 he associated with Albert Fischer, whom he later followed to the Biological Institute of the Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen. Before leaving Germany for Copenhagen he spent the year 1931-1932 as a Rockefeller Foundation Fellow with P.A. Levene at The Rockefeller University, then known as The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.

In 1939 Dr. Lipmann came to the United States, to Vincent du Vigneaud's department at the Cornell Medical School. From 1941 until he joined The Rockefeller Institute in 1957, he was associated with the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Harvard Medical School, which in 1949 appointed him professor of biological chemistry. As a biochemist whose primary concern was the transmission, generation, and utilization of cellular energy, he proposed (in 1941) the concept of a metabolic dynamo by which energy-rich phosphate bonds continuously supply the energy needed for the work of building and repairing cells. In 1945 Lipmann isolated Coenzyme A and identified it as a key substance in the biosynthesis of a great variety of cell constituents, including fatty acids, steroids, amino acids, hemoglobin and others. He found that it contained one of the B vitamins, pantothenic acid.

For this discovery of Coenzyme A and its recognition as one of the most important substances in body metabolism, Dr. Lipmann was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (along with Hans Kreb) in 1953. Dr. Lipmann moved to The Rockefeller Institute in 1957, becoming Professor Emeritus in 1970. At RU, he worked with charged tRNAs and moved into the field of elongation factors in ribosomal protein synthesis. EFTu and EFTs were discovered at the Rockefeller laboratory.

In 1966 President Johnson presented him with the National Medal of Science, the nation's highest award for scientific achievement, for his original discoveries of molecular mechanisms and his fundamental contributions to the conceptual structure of modern biochemistry. He received numerous other awards, including the Carl Neuberg Medal and the Mead Johnson Award. He was given honorary degrees from the University of Paris, Harvard University, the University of Chicago, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Brandeis University, Medizinische Hochschule (Hanover, Germany), the University of Copenhagen, and The Rockefeller University. In 1974, an annual Fritz Lipmann Lecture Series was established at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Molekulare Genetik, in Berlin, by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Biologische Chemie at the behest of his former students and colleagues. In 1975, he received the Orden Pour le Merite fur Wissenschaften und Kunste from President Walter Scheel of West Germany, in a ceremony held in Bonn. His professional memberships included the National Academy of Sciences, the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina in East Germany, a fellow of the Danish Royal Academy of Sciences, the New York Academy of Sciences, and a foreign member of the Royal Society in London.

Dr. Lipmann lectured widely and published numerous scientific articles, publishing at least one article for every year of his professional career, beginning in 1924 up to his death in 1986. He wrote an autobiography, The Wanderings of a Biochemist, published by Wiley-Interscience, in 1971. Up until the time of his death, on July 24, 1986, at the age of 87, Dr. Lipmann was actively running a laboratory at The Rockefeller University and conducting research. In the last few years of his life, his research focused on the mechanism of protein synthesis.

JACQUES LOEB Papers, 1906-1924

Size: 0.6 cu. ft.

Collection: The collection (Record Group 450 L823 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes biographical material, a bibliography, correspondence (1906-1924), memorials and tributes, articles about Loeb, photographs, reprints, and an inventory for the Jacques Loeb papers at the Library of Congress.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Jacques Loeb (1859-1924), born and educated in Germany, was a leading proponent of the mechanistic conception of biology who served as a member of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research from 1910 until his death. His scientific work was stimulated by his philosophical concern with the freedom of the will, and his search for a mechanistic explanation for animal conduct led to research on animal tropisms and to applications of physical chemistry theories to biology.

ALFRED E. MIRSKY PAPERS, 1915-(1936-1975)-1986

Size: 29 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 M679 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes administrative records, biographical material, correspondence (both personal and professional), manuscripts of published papers and lectures, laboratory notes, photographs and slides, programs, and reports.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Alfred Ezra Mirsky (1900-1974) was a biochemist and physiologist at The Rockefeller University from 1927 until his death. His research interests focused on the nature of proteins and properties of the cell nucleus. Mirsky was one of the first scientists to isolate and characterize the Messenger RNA as genetic material in mammalian cells. As chairman of the Faculty Committee on Educational Policies, he helped shape policies in restructuring The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research into a graduate university. Mirsky was also active in furthering the publication of scientific literature through book publishing and as a consultant to Scientific American.

STANFORD MOORE PAPERS, 1881-(1913-1982)-1984

Size: 56 cubic feet

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 M786 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes biographical material, correspondence, laboratory files, subject files, lectures, manuscripts, reprints, audio-visual materials, and ephemera.

Arrangement: The collection is arranged into eleven distinct series based on subject matter and media:

Series 1, Biographical and Family Material, is arranged alphabetically, and includes information on Moore's life as a whole, as well as Moore's childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Files on Moore's parents, Ruth Fowler and John Howard Moore, are also present in this series.

Series 2, Correspondence, is arranged alphabetically by the last name of the correspondent. This series primarily contains professional and academic correspondence, and spans the years during which Moore was most active at the Institute/University.

Series 3, Laboratory Files, is further separated into two categories: Laboratory Administration and Laboratory Notes and Notebooks. Members and associates of the Moore-Stein Laboratory at the Institute/University have files arranged alphabetically by last name. Laboratory Notes and Notebooks are also arranged alphabetically, either by last name or by the title of the notebook.

Series 4, Subject Files, is arranged alphabetically and contains material collected by Moore on various topics, including people, places, events, and research subjects. These files can include articles, notes, reprints, and correspondence.

Series 5, Lectures and Speeches, is arranged chronologically by the year in which the speech or lecture was given by Moore. The files typically contain notes and text written by Stanford Moore.

Series 6, Professional Travel and Activities, contains Moore's files on trips that he took which were of a professional nature, either within the United States or abroad. These files are arranged chronologically by the year in which he visited the location. This series also contains files pertaining to Moore's professional activities which are grouped into the following categories: Conferences – General, American Society of Biological Chemists, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, International Congress of Biochemistry, Rockefeller University, and Vanderbilt University.

Series 7, Nobel Prize, holds materials relating to Moore's 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, including congratulatory correspondence, materials on the ceremony and the Nobel Prize Festival, and a folder of clippings.

Series 8, Manuscripts, includes manuscripts submitted or given to Moore by associates or members of the Moore-Stein Laboratory, as well as one folder of Moore manuscripts.

Series 9, Reprints, contains two runs of reprints maintained by Moore: Collected Reprints and Moore Reprints. These two sets of reprints are arranged chronologically; any reprints that were not originally filed within these two series are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series 10, Audio-Visual Materials, includes photographs, negatives, slides, glass slides, audio tapes, and microfiche. All audio-visual media from other series within the collection have been removed to this series, and placed in a folder of the same name as the original.

Series 11, Ephemera, contains memorabilia and other objects from the Stanford Moore Papers, including certificates, diplomas, medals, paperweights, and other such objects.

Photograph Collection: Yes (Series 10, Audio-Visual Materials)

Biography: Stanford Moore was born on September 4, 1913 in Chicago, Illinois, to John Howard and Ruth Fowler Moore. Moore grew up in Nashville, Tennessee, where his father was Professor of Law at Vanderbilt University. After attending Peabody Demonstration School, he enrolled at Vanderbilt, graduating with a B.S. in 1935. That same year, he began graduate studies in Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin. Under the supervision of Karl Paul Link, he produced his Ph.D. thesis, "The Identification of Carbohydrates as Benzimidazole Derivatives" in 1938. After obtaining his degree, Link recommended Moore for a research assistantship in the Max Bergmann Laboratory at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Moore joined the Bergmann Laboratory in 1939, where he met his colleague and research partner of forty years, William H. Stein, a member of the laboratory since 1937.

During World War II, Moore served as a Technical Aide with the Office of Scientific Research and Development from 1942 to 1945. When the war ended, Herbert Gasser, then Director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, offered Moore and Stein laboratory space at the Institute (Bergmann's laboratory no longer existed, as he had died in 1944). In 1945, Moore and Stein returned to the Institute to form the Moore-Stein Laboratory. For over forty years, until his death, Moore was a member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (later the Rockefeller University). Moore primarily researched in the areas of chromatography and chemistry of carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids, and had a keen interest in the development of scientific equipment.

In 1950, Moore accepted an invitation to the University of Brussels to be a visiting professor (Chaire Franqui/Francqui Chair), and followed up that appointment with a 6-month stint as an investigator at the University of Cambridge. He became a full Member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1952. Moore, together with Stein, worked to develop quantitative chromatographic methods through which proteins, peptides, and amino acids could be separated.

In 1972, Moore and Stein were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule." They shared the award with Christian B. Anfinsen from the National Institutes of Health.

Moore was active in various professional scientific organizations, including the American Society of Biological Chemists (he served as President in 1967 as well as a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Biological Chemistry from 1950 to 1960), the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (serving as president in 1971), and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (he was secretary to the Commission on Proteins of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry from 1953 to 1957. In addition to the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1972, Moore (along with Stein) won the 1964 American Chemical Society Award in Chromatography and Electrophoresis, and the Richards Medal and the Linderstrøm-Lang Medal, both in 1972.

Stanford Moore died in his apartment in New York City on August 23, 1982 at the age of sixty-eight.

Stanford Moore Papers Scope and Content Note

Stanford Moore Papers Finding Aid

HIDEYO NOGUCHI PAPERS, (1900-1928)-1976

Size: 2.4 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 N689 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes biographical material, a bibliography, correspondence (1900-1928), condolences and memorials, newspapers and magazine articles about Noguchi, photographs, and four volumes of reprints of his writings. Much of the collection is posthumous material about Noguchi.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Hideyo Noguchi (1876-1928), born and educated in Japan, gained great fame as a scientist in America, where he joined The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1904-1928). After early research on snake venoms, Noguchi became the first scientist to demonstrate that paralysis resulted from syphilis; was the first to grow pure cultures of spirochetes; and made significant contributions toward the understanding of Carrion's disease. He worked on yellow fever later in his career and believed he had isolated its causative agent and developed a vaccine. When these findings were challenged, Noguchi pursued his research, only to contract the fatal disease himself.


Size: 1.5 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 OL4 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes biographical material, a bibliography, administrative correspondence (1921-1963), scientific correspondence (1944-1963), personal correspondence (1946-1963), an oral history (91 pp.), subject files, photographs, a case of lantern slides, and seven volumes of reprints.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Peter Kosciusko Olitsky (1886-1964) was a pathologist and microbiologist at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research from 1917 until his retirement in 1952. A pioneer in virus research, Olitsky is considered to be an outstanding early investigator in the field of neurotropic viruses, the agents which cause such diseases as encephalitis and polio.

ABRAHAM PAIS PAPERS, 1875 (1936-1998) 2000

Size: 24.2 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 P166 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes biographical material, manuscripts, subject files, lectures, professional and personal correspondence, notes and notebooks, and reprints.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Abraham Pais (1918-2000), a theoretical physicist, was one of the first founders of particle physics. He was Detlev W. Bronk Professor Emeritus at the Rockefeller University. Known for his work with the forces that control particle interaction, including the development of the principle of associated production, Pais was also a noted historian of science. In the latter part of his career Pais became known for his histories of physics, most notably Inward Bound: Of Matter and Forces in the Physical World, and his biographies of Albert Einstein, Subtle is the Lord, and Niels Bohr, Niels Bohr's Times. Professor Pais died on July 28, 2000.

Online Finding Aid

GERTRUDE E. PERLMANN PAPERS, 1927, 1933, (1935-1974)

Size: 30 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 P422 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes administrative records, biographical material, conference material, correspondence (both personal and professional), glass slides, laboratory notes, manuscripts and drafts of manuscripts, memorabilia, photographs, and reports.

Arrangement: Chronological within each subject.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Gertrude Erika Perlmann (1912-1974), an authority in the field of protein chemistry, was affiliated with The Rockefeller University from 1947 until her death in 1974. She was noted for her research on the chemical structure of pepsin, an enzyme that speeds food digestion, and for demonstrating its ability to break down food. Perlmann also took an interest in scientific developments in Israel. In 1960, she was visiting professor at the Weizmann Institute in Rechovot at the laboratory of Ephraim Katchalski (who was later the president of Israel, Ephraim Katzir).


Size: 0.2 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection consists of biographical material, clippings, correspondence, and photographs. The text below first appeared in the Fall 1991 issue of the Rockefeller Archive Center Newsletter, written by Renee Mastrocco.

Arrangement: Chronological within each subject

Additional Sabin material is located at the Hauck Center for the Albert B. Sabin Archives at the Cincinnati Medical Heritage Center.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Albert Sabin (1906-1993) joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1935 as a research assistant and became an associate of the Institute in 1937. Prior to his work at the RIMR, Sabin served as a house physician at Bellevue Hospital in 1932 and in 1934 he received a National Research Council fellowship at the Lister Institute in London. In 1939, Sabin accepted a position as associate professor at the Children's Hospital Research Foundation at the University of Cincinnati, where he developed its Department of Virology and Microbiology. He returned to the RIMR in 1944 for one year as a Visiting Investigator at the Institute's Princeton Department of Animal and Plant Pathology.

Sabin is best known for the discovery of the B virus and the development of the oral polio vaccine.

The Polish-born Sabin arrived in the United States in 1921 and began study at New York University from 1923-1931. He received a B.A. in 1924, studied at the College of Dentistry until 1926, and finished with a B.S. in 1927. He was graduated from the NYU Medical College in 1931.


Size: 26.0 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 St34 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes correspondence, manuscripts, laboratory notes, lectures, subject files, administrative records and audiovisual material.

Arrangement: Chronological and alphabetical

Biography: William H. Stein (1911-1980) was affiliated with the Rockefeller Institute throughout his professional career. He began as a volunteer in Max Bergmann's laboratory in 1937, joined the staff in 1938, and became a member in 1952. His research focused on questions in protein chemistry. He studied the relationships between the chemical structures and their biological functions. Stein collaborated extensively with his Rockefeller colleague, Stanford Moore, and in 1959 they succeeded for the first time to decipher the complete chemical structure of ribonuclease. Stein and Moore were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1972 for their investigations on the structure and activity of ribonuclease.

EDWARD L. TATUM PAPERS, 1931-(1930-1975)-1979

Size: 23 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 T189 of the Rockefeller University Archives) includes biographical material, correspondence (both personal and professional), film, laboratory notes, manuscripts of published papers and lectures, memorabilia, photographs and slides, and reprints.

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Edward Lawrie Tatum (1909-1975), a biochemical geneticist, was a Member and Professor at the Rockefeller University from 1957 until his death. He had earlier been associated with the Stanford University (1937-1945, 1948-1957) and Yale University (1945-1948). Tatum's field of research was the study of the genetics and metabolism of bacteria, yeast, and molds. Some of his most significant research accomplishments included the discovery of biochemical mutations in Neurospora (with George W. Beadle); biochemical mutation in bacteria; and gene recombination in Escherichia coli, both of the latter two research projects in association with Joshua S. Lederberg. In recognition of his work, Tatum shared the 1958 Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology with Beadle and Lederberg for their contributions to biochemical genetics.


Size: 6.8 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection (Record Group 450 U600 of the Rockefeller University Archives) consists of reprints, correspondence and general office files. The collection is unprocessed and access is limited. A significant portion of the collection includes materials in Dutch. A preliminary inventory of the papers is available at the Archive Center.

Arrangement: Chronological and alphabetical

Photograph Collection: No

Biography: George Eugene Uhlenbeck (1900-1988) was a theoretical physicist best known for his contributions to the study of atomic structure, quantum and statistical mechanics, the kinetic theory of matter, and nuclear physics. He was born in Batavia, Java (then the Dutch East Indies, now Djakarta, Indonesia) on December 6, 1900. In 1907 his family settled in The Hague, Holland. Uhlenbeck graduated from the State University of Leiden, The Netherlands in 1920 and continued there with graduate study in the theory of atomic spectra under Paul Ehrenfest, earning his master's degree in 1922 and his Ph.D. in 1927.

As doctoral students in 1925, Uhlenbeck and Samuel A. Goudsmit, who was later with Brookhaven National Laboratory, discovered electrons spin. Results of an experiment with heated hydrogen led them to conclude that the electron in the hydrogen atom was spinning. This concept revolutionized the understanding of the nature of atoms and is central to the study of atomic theory. Uhlenbeck's subsequent research focused on the statistical and kinetic theory of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena of physical systems. In 1927 Uhlenbeck accepted a position at the University of Michigan, where in 1939, he was named professor of theoretical physics. Though there were several interruptions in his career at Michigan, Uhlenbeck's affiliation with the school continued through 1960. Uhlenbeck returned to The Netherlands during 1935-1939 as professor at the State University of Utrecht. During the war years (1942-1945) he worked on the development of radar systems at MIT's Radiation Laboratory. After World War II he again returned to The Netherlands, serving at the University of Leiden and the University of Amsterdam. Uhlenbeck joined the Rockefeller Institute (later named The Rockefeller University) in 1961 and contributed to the development of its theoretical physics faculty. He retired from The Rockefeller University in 1974 and died at the age of 87 in his Boulder, Colorado home on October 31, 1988.


Size: 60 cu. ft.

Arrangement: The collection is arranged into six distinct series based on subject matter and media:

Series 1 Biographical Materials
Series 2 Office Files
Series 3 Manuscripts, Notes, and Notebooks
Series 4 Reprints
Series 5 Materials in Chinese
Series 6 Audio-Visual and Miscellaneous Materials

Biography: Hao Wang was born on May 20, 1921 in Jinan (Tsinan) in what is today the People's Republic of China. Wang grew up in China, and received his Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from the National Southwestern Associated University in 1943, and his Master's degree in Philosophy from Tsing Hua University in 1945.

Wang moved to the United States, and in 1948, he received his Ph.D. in Philosophy from Harvard University. He remained at Harvard as a Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows (from 1948 to 1951) and was subsequently appointed as Assistant Professor of Philosophy.

In 1954, Wang travelled to England, where he served as John Locke Lecturer and as Reader in the Philosophy of Mathematics (1956-1961) at Oxford University. Upon reentry into the United States, Wang returned to Harvard as Gordon McKay Professor of Mathematical Logic and Applied Mathematics. During his tenure at Harvard, Wang also collaborated with the Burroughs Corporation, the University of Michigan, the International Business Machine Corporation (IBM), Bell Laboratories, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In 1967, Wang joined the faculty of The Rockefeller University, a position he would hold until his death in 1995. Although the Logic Research Group was disbanded in 1976, Wang remained at the University, continuing his research and work in mathematics, logic, and philosophy. Wang's early research was in computer science, artificial intelligence and automated theorem proving, and in the 1960s, he introduced domino problems ("Wang tiles"). Later in his career, Wang focused his attention on the life and writings of the mathematician-philosopher Kurt Gödel. Prior to his death in 1978, Gödel allowed Wang to have many in-depth discussions with him; one product of these conversations was Wang's 1987 book, Reflections on Kurt Gödel.

Wang was a member of the Association of Symbolic Logic and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was named Honorary Professor at both Peking University (1985) and Tsing Hua University (1986). In addition to numerous articles, Wang authored Logic, Computers and Sets (1962), From Mathematics to Philosophy (1974), Popular Lectures on Mathematical Logic (1981), Beyond Analytical Philosophy: Doing Justice to What We Know (1985), and A Logical Journey: From Gödel to Philosophy (1996). In 1983, Wang was awarded the first Milestone Prize for Automated Theorem Proving.

Hao Wang died of an extended illness at the age of 73 on May 13, 1995.

For additional information on the contents and arrangement of the collection, please see the Hao Wang Papers Scope and Content Note.


Size: 48 cu. ft.

Contents: The collection includes correspondence, photographs and slides, course syllabi, reprints, manuscripts, and lecture books.

Arrangement: Chronological and alphabetical

Photograph Collection: Yes

Biography: Paul A. Weiss (1898-1989) conducted important research on the vertebrate nervous system that contributed to the development of neurobiology. After years of teaching and research in his native Vienna and at Yale University and the University of Chicago, he joined the Rockefeller University in 1954 and for the next decade directed a laboratory of developmental biology, specializing in research in wound healing, cancer, and the development and repair of the nervous system. After 1964, he alternated research at Rockefeller with visiting professorships at other universities.

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